Nonparametric Bounds for the Risk Function

Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Apr 1;188(4):632-636. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwz013.


Nonparametric bounds for the risk difference are straightforward to calculate and make no untestable assumptions about unmeasured confounding or selection bias due to missing data (e.g., dropout). These bounds are often wide and communicate uncertainty due to possible systemic errors. An illustrative example is provided.

Keywords: bias; bounds; inference; missing data.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic
  • Epidemiologic Research Design*
  • Humans
  • Risk Assessment / methods*
  • Selection Bias
  • Statistics, Nonparametric*