Lenalidomide in combination with intravenous rituximab (REVRI) in relapsed/refractory primary CNS lymphoma or primary intraocular lymphoma: a multicenter prospective 'proof of concept' phase II study of the French Oculo-Cerebral lymphoma (LOC) Network and the Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA)†

Ann Oncol. 2019 Apr 1;30(4):621-628. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdz032.


Background: Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) are mainly diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) of the non-germinal center B-cell (non-GCB) subtype. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of rituximab plus lenalidomide (R2) in DLBCL-PCNSL.

Patients and methods: Patients with refractory/relapsed (R/R) DLBCL-PCNSL or primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) were included in this prospective phase II study. The induction treatment consisted of eight 28-day cycles of R2 (rituximab 375/m2 i.v. D1; lenalidomide 20 mg/day, D1-21 for cycle 1; and 25 mg/day, D1-21 for the subsequent cycles); in responding patients, the induction treatment was followed by a maintenance phase comprising 12 28-day cycles of lenalidomide alone (10 mg/day, D1-21). The primary end point was the overall response rate (ORR) at the end of induction (P0 = 10%; P1 = 30%).

Results: Fifty patients were included. Forty-five patients (PCNSL, N = 34; PVRL, N = 11) were assessable for response. The ORR at the end of induction was 35.6% (95% CI 21.9-51.2) in assessable patients and 32.0% (95% CI 21.9-51.2) in the intent-to-treat analysis, including 13 complete responses (CR)/unconfirmed CR (uCR; 29%) and 3 partial responses (PR; 7%). The best responses were 18 CR/uCR (40%) and 12 PR (27%) during the induction phase. The maintenance phase was started and completed by 18 and 5 patients, respectively. With a median follow-up of 19.2 months (range 1.5-31), the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 7.8 months (95% CI 3.9-11.3) and 17.7 months (95% CI 12.9 to not reached), respectively. No unexpected toxicity was observed. The peripheral baseline CD4/CD8 ratio impacted PFS [median PFS = 9.5 months (95% CI, 8.1-14.8] for CD4/CD8 ≥ 1.6; median PFS = 2.8 months, [95% CI, 1.1-7.8) for CD4/CD8 < 1.6, P = 0.03).

Conclusions: The R2 regimen showed significant activity in R/R PCNSL and PVRL patients. These results support assessments of the efficacy of R2 combined with methotrexate-based chemotherapy as a first-line treatment of PCNSL.

Clinical trials number: NCT01956695.

Keywords: lenalidomide; primary CNS lymphoma; primary vitreoretinal lymphoma; relapse; rituximab.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage*
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects
  • Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • France / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Intention to Treat Analysis
  • Intraocular Lymphoma / drug therapy*
  • Intraocular Lymphoma / mortality
  • Lenalidomide / administration & dosage*
  • Lenalidomide / adverse effects
  • Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy*
  • Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / mortality
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Progression-Free Survival
  • Proof of Concept Study
  • Prospective Studies
  • Remission Induction / methods
  • Rituximab / administration & dosage*
  • Rituximab / adverse effects


  • Rituximab
  • Lenalidomide

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01956695