Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is the most prevalent leukaemia in Western countries. It is an incurable disease characterized by a highly variable clinical course. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is an ideal model for studying clonal heterogeneity and dynamics during cancer progression, response to therapy and/or relapse because the disease usually develops over several years. Here we report an analysis by deep sequencing of sequential samples taken at different times from the affected organs of two patients with 12- and 7-year disease courses, respectively. One of the patients followed a linear pattern of clonal evolution, acquiring and selecting new mutations in response to salvage therapy and/or allogeneic transplantation, while the other suffered loss of cellular tumoral clones during progression and histological transformation.