Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic and progressive disease of the biliary tract. PSC is strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), mainly with ulcerative colitis, and most PSC patients have underlying IBD. The pathophysiological interactions between IBD and PSC are unclear, although it seems that the patients with IBD and PSC have a distinct phenotype. IBD with coexisting PSC is more extensive and is characterized by milder activity compared to IBD alone. The coexistence of PSC increases the risk for colorectal cancer in IBD patients and lifelong annual surveillance colonoscopy is recommended. Also, liver transplantation (LT) for PSC may affect the course of IBD. In addition, the management of IBD after LT includes many specific problems. On the other hand, the effect of IBD on the natural history of PSC appears to be milder. However, IBD may increase the risk of postsurgical complications after LT and is a risk factor for recurrent PSC after LT. Overall, the coexistence of IBD with PSC changes the management, natural history and prognosis of both diseases.
Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Crohn’s disease; Inflammatory bowel disease; Primary sclerosing cholangitis; Ulcerative colitis.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: A Review of the Phenotype and Associated Specific FeaturesC Palmela et al. Gut Liver 12 (1), 17-29. PMID 28376583. - ReviewPrimary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, progressive cholestatic disease that is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in approximately 70% of cases. …
Distinctive Inflammatory Bowel Disease Phenotype in Primary Sclerosing CholangitisAB de Vries et al. World J Gastroenterol 21 (6), 1956-71. PMID 25684965. - ReviewIBD in primary sclerosing cholangitis represents a distinct phenotype that differs from UC and Crohn's disease and therefore requires specialized management.
PSC-IBD: Specific Phenotype of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Associated With Primary Sclerosing CholangitisL Bajer et al. Vnitr Lek 64 (6), 659-664. PMID 30223664.Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive disease of the biliary tree which represents one of the most frequent indications for orthotopic liver transplantati …
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Associated With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An UpdateRE Rossi et al. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 28 (2), 123-31. PMID 26636407. - ReviewPrimary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic progressive disease, usually associated with underlying inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), with a prevalence of 60-80% …
Colorectal Cancer in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease After Liver Transplantation for Primary Sclerosing CholangitisA Vera et al. Transplantation 75 (12), 1983-8. PMID 12829898.Patients with PSC undergoing LT with a long history of ulcerative colitis and pancolitis have an increased risk of developing CRC with reduced survival. We advocate long- …
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Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Liver and Gut: From Current Knowledge to Future PerspectivesA Ochel et al. Int J Mol Sci 20 (8). PMID 30999584. - ReviewInnate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent a heterogeneous population of recently discovered immune cells that mirror the functions of adaptive T lymphocytes. However, ILCs a …