Twenty-six patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were studied in a concomitant double-masked clinical trial lasting three months, in which the ocular hypotensive efficacy and safety of levobunolol (0.5%) and timolol (0.5%), topically administered twice daily, were compared. At all follow-up examinations there was a significant decrease in mean intraocular pressure from baseline in both treatment groups, with no significant difference between them in this regard. Few changes were seen in either treatment group in cup/disk ratio, visual fields, visual acuity, biomicroscopy, or ophthalmoscopy. In both groups slight decreases in mean blood pressure were observed. Levobunolol and timolol were similarly effective and safe in reducing intraocular pressure in patients with chronic open-angle glaucoma and those with ocular hypertension.