Sever's Disease (Calcaneal Apophysitis)

Adv Emerg Nurs J. Jan/Mar 2019;41(1):10-14. doi: 10.1097/TME.0000000000000219.

Abstract

Sever's disease, or calcaneal apophysitis, is the primary cause of heel pain in pediatric patients between the ages of 8 and 15 years. Primary risk factors in pediatric athletes are obesity and high levels of physical activity. Sever's injury primarily results from high-impact sports such as soccer, track, cross-country, gymnastics, tennis, and ballet. This injury mainly occurs during puberty with an open growth plate in the immature calcaneus. Clinical diagnosis can be confirmed by performing a "squeeze test" of the heel on physical examination. Diagnostic imaging findings include increased sclerosis and fragmentation of the calcaneal apophysis on plain radiograph x-rays. Ice, activity restriction, stretching, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immobilization, and heel cups are all methods that can be utilized in treating the pain caused by Sever's. No long-term effects have been associated with Sever's disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Athletic Injuries / diagnosis*
  • Athletic Injuries / nursing*
  • Calcaneus / injuries*
  • Child
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Diagnostic Imaging
  • Humans
  • Nursing Assessment*
  • Pain Management / nursing*