The application of protein (or peptide) biomarkers in clinical studies is a dynamic, ever-growing field. The introduction of clinical proteomics/peptidomics, such as mass spectrometry-based assays and multiplexed antibody-based protein arrays, has reshaped the landscape of biomarker identification and validation, allowing the discovery of novel biomarkers at an unprecedented rate and reliability. To reflect the current status with respect to implementation of protein/peptide biomarkers, an investigation of the most recent (last 6 years) clinical studies from clinicaltrials.gov is presented. Forty-two clinical trials involving the direct use of protein or peptide biomarkers in patient stratification and/or disease diagnosis and prognosis are highlighted. Most of the clinical trials that include proteomics/protein assays are aiming toward implementation of non-invasive diagnostic tools for early detection, while many of the clinical trials are targeting to correlate the protein abundance with the risk of a disease event. Less in number are the studies in which the protein biomarkers are applied to stratify the patients for intervention. All the above areas of application are considered of great importance for improving disease management, in an era where implementation toward precision medicine is the desired outcome of proteomics biomarker research.
Keywords: clinical trials; diagnosis; prognosis; proteomic/protein assays; stratification.
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