Dietary patterns among French-speaking men residing in Montreal, Canada

Prev Med Rep. 2018 Dec 29;13:205-213. doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.12.017. eCollection 2019 Mar.


The purpose of this study was to describe dietary patterns among 1636 French-speaking men residing in Montreal, Canada and to assess sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics of men adhering to the dietary patterns identified. Participants were population controls from the Prostate Cancer and Environment Study, a case-control study conducted between 2006 and 2011 in Montreal. Information on diet was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and principal component analysis, a data-driven method and a posteriori method, was used to identify dietary patterns. Three dietary patterns were identified; Healthy, Modified Western - Salty and Modified Western - Sweet patterns accounted for 7.0%, 5.4%, and 3.2% of the variance, respectively. The Healthy pattern was characterized by consumption of fruits, vegetables, vegetable soup, chicken, fish and seafood, cheese, rice, yogurt, and wine. The Modified Western - Salty pattern included high loadings for beef, pork, chicken, hot-dogs or sausages, cold cuts, bacon, barbecue cooking, meat slightly blackened, potatoes, pasta with tomato sauce, pizza, pastries, dark carbonated soft drinks, ice cream, and white bread. The third pattern, labelled as Modified Western - Sweet, had high loadings of cookies, muffins, cakes, pastries, pies, ice cream, fruits and vegetables. In multivariate analyses, the Healthy pattern was positively associated with higher income and education, moderate recreational physical activity and less heavy smoking, and inversely associated with French ancestry. The Modified Western - Salty pattern was positively associated with French, other European, and Latino ancestries, and with married and common-law relationships. Finally, the Modified Western - Sweet pattern was more common among men of French ancestry and users of vitamin/mineral supplements. The Healthy pattern has been frequently observed in other Western populations, but the other two are described for the first time in a study population of men.

Keywords: BMI, body mass index; Dietary patterns; FFQ, food frequency questionnaire; French-speaking; Healthy pattern; MSA, measure of sampling adequacy; Men; Modified Western – Salty pattern; Modified Western – Sweet pattern; PCA, principal component analysis.