Test-retest reliability of segment kinetic energy measures in the golf swing

Sports Biomech. 2021 Apr;20(3):344-359. doi: 10.1080/14763141.2018.1553244. Epub 2019 Feb 1.


Analyses of segment kinetic energy (KE) can provide the most appropriate means of exploring sequential movements. As the reliability associated with its measurement has not been reported, the aim of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of segment KE measures in the golf swing. On two occasions, seven male golfers hit five shots with three different clubs. Body segment inertia parameters were estimated for 17 rigid bodies and 3D kinematic data were collected during each swing. The magnitude and timing of peak total, linear and angular kinetic energies were then calculated for each rigid body and for four segment groups. Regardless of club type, KE was measured with high reliability for almost all rigid bodies and segment groups. However, significantly larger magnitudes of peak total (p = 0.039) and linear (p = 0.021) lower body KE were reported in test 2 than in test 1. The high reliability reported in this study provides support for the use of analyses of segment kinetic energy. However, practitioners should pay careful attention to the identification of anatomical landmarks which define the thigh, pelvis and thorax as this was the main cause of variability in repeated measures of segment kinetic energy.

Keywords: Proximal-to-distal sequencing; electromagnetic tracking system; inertia parameters; repeatability.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anatomic Landmarks / physiology*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena / physiology*
  • Golf / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Male
  • Movement / physiology
  • Pelvic Bones / physiology
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sports Equipment
  • Thigh / physiology
  • Thorax / physiology