Purpose of review: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, allergen-driven, immune-mediated disease of the esophagus that progresses to esophageal fibrostenosis if left untreated. The aim of this review is to provide a concise update on recent clinically relevant advances in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for EoE.
Recent findings: Current diagnostic and disease monitoring protocols for EoE rely on repetitive endoscopic evaluations and esophageal tissue acquisition for histopathologic analysis. Recent advancements in EoE diagnosis include endoscopic functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP), transnasal endoscopy (TNE), and the emergence of non-invasive diagnostic tools including cytosponge, esophageal string test, and mucosal impedance probe. Biomarkers for EoE have not yet proven their clinical utility. No Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs currently exist for the treatment of EoE. Topical corticosteroid, proton-pump inhibitors (PPI), elimination diet, and dilation are the current treatment modalities for confirmed EoE. Promising results from clinical trials are emerging for biologic agents that target the interleukin (IL)-13 and the IL-4/IL-13 receptor, specifically, RPC4046 and dupilumab, respectively. New diagnostic algorithms, non-invasive diagnostic strategies, and treatment modalities for EoE are emerging. Patients with EoE continue to require a multimodal and multi-disciplinary management approach.
Keywords: Biologic therapy; Corticosteroids; Diagnosis; Elimination diet; Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE); Treatment.