There is growing evidence supporting the genetic variability outside of HLA system that is contributing to the variation in transplant outcomes. Determining novel predictors could help to identify patients at risk and tailor their immunosuppressive regimens. This article discusses the various single nucleotide polymorphisms in costimulatory molecules and cytokines that have been evaluated for their effect on transplantation. An overview of how gene polymorphism studies are conducted and factors to consider in the experimental design to ensure meaningful data can be concluded are discussed.
Keywords: Co-stimulation; Cytokines; Immune response; Rejection; Single nucleotide polymorphisms; Transplantation; Validation.
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