Genetic Polymorphism in Cytokines and Costimulatory Molecules in Stem Cell and Solid Organ Transplantation

Clin Lab Med. 2019 Mar;39(1):107-123. doi: 10.1016/j.cll.2018.10.002. Epub 2018 Dec 24.


There is growing evidence supporting the genetic variability outside of HLA system that is contributing to the variation in transplant outcomes. Determining novel predictors could help to identify patients at risk and tailor their immunosuppressive regimens. This article discusses the various single nucleotide polymorphisms in costimulatory molecules and cytokines that have been evaluated for their effect on transplantation. An overview of how gene polymorphism studies are conducted and factors to consider in the experimental design to ensure meaningful data can be concluded are discussed.

Keywords: Co-stimulation; Cytokines; Immune response; Rejection; Single nucleotide polymorphisms; Transplantation; Validation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • B7 Antigens / genetics*
  • B7 Antigens / metabolism
  • B7 Antigens / physiology
  • Cytokines / genetics*
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Graft Rejection / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / genetics
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes / physiology
  • Transplantation*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics


  • B7 Antigens
  • Cytokines
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha