The structure and dimensions of the mandible, tongue, and hyoid complex are important variables in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea at the hypopharyngeal level. Genioglossus advancement is based on mandibular osteotomy, which brings the genioglossus muscle (GGM) forward and prevents posterior collapse during sleep. The genioglossus advancement technique has recently undergone several modifications; each has attempted to minimize surgical morbidity while improving the incorporation and advancement of the GGM. The hyoid bone has been of interest in sleep apnea and apnea-related surgical procedures because of its integral relationship with the tongue base and hypopharynx. Hyothyroidopexy is illustrated.
Keywords: Genioglossus advancement; Hyoid surgery; Obstructive sleep apnea.
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