Purpose: To assess the functional Queryoutcome of patients with cystoscopic recurrence of stricture post-urethroplasty and to evaluate the role of cystoscopy as initial screening tool to predict future failure.
Methods: Cases with cystoscopy data after anterior urethroplasty in a multi-institutional database were retrospectively studied. Based on cystoscopic evaluation, performed within 3-months post-urethroplasty, patients were categorized as small-caliber (SC) stricture recurrence: stricture unable to be passed by standard cystoscope, large-caliber (LC) stricture accommodating a cystoscope, and no recurrence. We assessed the cumulative probability of intervention and the quality of life scores in association with cystoscopic recurrence 1-year post-urethroplasty. Patients with history of hypospadias, perineal urethrostomy, urethral fistula, and meatal pathology were excluded.
Results: From a total of 2630 men in our cohort, 1054 patients met the inclusion criteria: normal (n = 740), LC recurrence (n = 178), and SC recurrence (n = 136) based on the first cystoscopic evaluation performed at median 111 days postoperatively. Median follow-up was 350 days (IQR 121-617) after urethroplasty. Cystoscopic recurrence was significantly associated with secondary interventions (2.7%, 6.2%, 33.8% in normal, LC, and SC groups, respectively). Quality of life variables were not statistically significantly different among the three study groups.
Conclusions: Many patients with cystoscopic recurrence do not need an intervention after initial urethroplasty. Despite good negative predictive value, cystoscopy alone may be a poor screening test for stricture recurrence defined by patient symptoms and need for secondary interventions.
Keywords: Cystoscopy; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Self report; Treatment outcome; Urethra; Urethral stricture.