Strongyloidiasis: A Neglected Tropical Disease

Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2019 Mar;33(1):135-151. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.006.


Most of the 30 to 100 million people infected with Strongyloides stercoralis have subclinical (or asymptomatic) infections. These infections are commonly chronic and longstanding. A change in immune status can increase parasite numbers, leading to hyperinfection syndrome, dissemination, and death if unrecognized. The use of corticosteroids and HTLV-1 infection are most commonly associated with the hyperinfection syndrome. Strongyloides adult parasites reside in the small intestine and induce immune responses that are like other nematodes. Definitive diagnosis of S stercoralis infection is based on stool examinations for larvae. S stercoralis remains largely neglected.

Keywords: Anthelmintic therapy; Autoinfection; Corticosteroids; Hyperinfection; Strongyloides; Strongyloidiasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antiparasitic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Asymptomatic Infections
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Disease Management
  • Humans
  • Immunoassay
  • Ivermectin / therapeutic use
  • Molecular Diagnostic Techniques
  • Neglected Diseases / diagnosis
  • Neglected Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Neglected Diseases / parasitology*
  • Soil / parasitology
  • Strongyloidiasis / diagnosis
  • Strongyloidiasis / drug therapy*


  • Antiparasitic Agents
  • Soil
  • Ivermectin