Most of the 30 to 100 million people infected with Strongyloides stercoralis have subclinical (or asymptomatic) infections. These infections are commonly chronic and longstanding. A change in immune status can increase parasite numbers, leading to hyperinfection syndrome, dissemination, and death if unrecognized. The use of corticosteroids and HTLV-1 infection are most commonly associated with the hyperinfection syndrome. Strongyloides adult parasites reside in the small intestine and induce immune responses that are like other nematodes. Definitive diagnosis of S stercoralis infection is based on stool examinations for larvae. S stercoralis remains largely neglected.
Keywords: Anthelmintic therapy; Autoinfection; Corticosteroids; Hyperinfection; Strongyloides; Strongyloidiasis.
Published by Elsevier Inc.