Effect of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum selloi, and Rosmarinic Acid on Cerebral Vascular Damage in a Chronic Hypertension Model

Biol Pharm Bull. 2019;42(2):201-211. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b18-00574.


The main objective of treatment against hypertension is not only to reduce blood pressure levels, but also to reduce vascular risk in general. In the present work, administering angiotensin II (AGII; 0.2 µg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 12 weeks) activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which caused an increase in corticosterone levels, as well as in proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) and macrophage chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and decreased anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interleukin 4 (IL-4)). On observing the behavior in the different models, an anxiogenic effect (elevated plus maze (EPM)) and cognitive impairment (water Morris maze (WMM)) was observed in animals with AGII. By administering organic extracts from Ocimum basilicum (Oba-EtOAc) and Ocimum selloi (Ose-EtOAc), and some doses of rosmarinic acid (RA) (6 weeks per os (p.o.)), the damage caused by AGII was stopped by re-establishing corticosterone serum levels and by decreasing the proinflammatory cytokines and MCP-1.

Keywords: Ocimum basilicum; Ocimum selloi; angiotensin II; anxiety; inflammation; memory.

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin II / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Cinnamates / pharmacology*
  • Corticosterone / blood
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Depsides / pharmacology*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Hypertension / chemically induced
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension / metabolism
  • Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / drug effects
  • Male
  • Maze Learning / drug effects
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Ocimum / chemistry*
  • Ocimum basilicum / chemistry
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System / drug effects
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Random Allocation
  • Rosmarinic Acid
  • Spatial Navigation / drug effects


  • Cinnamates
  • Cytokines
  • Depsides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Angiotensin II
  • Corticosterone