Inhibitory effect of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) on avian pathogens

J Vet Med Sci. 2019 Mar 30;81(3):466-472. doi: 10.1292/jvms.18-0754. Epub 2019 Feb 4.


The inhibitory activities of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) on avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Salmonella Infantis (SI) and Escherichia coli (EC) were evaluated. Original GSE contained 0.24% benzalkonium chloride (BZC), however, 0.0025% BZC solution could not inactivate bacteria. The activity of diluted GSE (×100, ×500 and ×1,000 with redistilled water) against selected viruses and bacteria was evaluated in this study. The GSE solutions were incubated with the pathogens over a period of time after which the remaining viruses were titrated and the bacterial colonies were counted. In the presence of organic material-5% fetal bovine serum (FBS), the test solutions were sprayed at 1 cm and 30 cm distances to test the efficacy of GSE in a spray form. Furthermore, the efficacy of GSE against bacteria on clothes was tested using non-woven cloth. GSE×100 reduced the viral titer of both AIV and NDV even in 5% FBS condition. IBDV showed high resistance to GSE. GSE×1,000 inactivated both SI and EC within 5 sec, even in the presence of 5% FBS. The disinfectant was able to maintain its efficacy in the spray form at 30 cm distance. GSE was also effective against SI and EC inoculated on fabric. GSE is a potential novel disinfectant against viruses and bacteria, effective even within a short contact time.

Keywords: avian influenza virus; enhancement of biosecurity; grapefruit seed extract; spraying method.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Aerosols
  • Animals
  • Birds / microbiology
  • Birds / virology
  • Citrus paradisi / chemistry*
  • Clothing
  • Disinfectants / pharmacology*
  • Dogs
  • Escherichia coli / drug effects
  • Infectious bursal disease virus
  • Influenza A virus / drug effects
  • Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells
  • Newcastle disease virus / drug effects
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Salmonella / drug effects


  • Aerosols
  • Disinfectants
  • Plant Extracts