Background: Despite the clear success of office-based buprenorphine treatment in increasing availability of effective treatment for opioid use disorder, constraints on its effectiveness include high attrition and limited high-quality behavioral care in many areas. Web-based interventions may be a novel strategy for providing evidence-based behavioral care to individuals receiving office-based buprenorphine maintenance. This report describes modification and initial pilot testing of Web-based training in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT4CBT) specifically for use with individuals in office-based buprenorphine. Methods: Twelve-week randomized pilot trial evaluating effects of CBT4CBT-Buprenophine in retaining participants and reducing drug use with respect to standard office-based buprenorphine alone was carried out. Twenty individuals meeting DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition) criteria for current opioid use disorder were randomized to standard buprenorphine treatment or buprenorphine plus access to CBT4CBT-Buprenorphine. Results: There were promising findings regarding rates of urine toxicology screens negative for opioids (91% versus 64%; P = .05, effect size d = 0.88) and all drugs (82% versus 30%; P = .004, d = 1.2). Individuals randomized to CBT4CBT-Buprenorphine completed a mean of 82.6 (SD = 4.4) days of treatment (of a possible 84) compared with 68.6 (SD = 32.6) for those assigned to standard buprenorphine treatment. Conclusions: Although preliminary and limited by the small sample size, this trial suggests the feasibility and promise of validated, Web-based interventions, tailored for this specific patient population, for improving outcomes in office-based buprenorphine.
Keywords: Behavioral interventions; buprenorphine; web-based interventions.