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Monogenean Fauna of Alien Tilapias (Cichlidae) in South China

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Monogenean Fauna of Alien Tilapias (Cichlidae) in South China

Shuai Zhang et al. Parasite.

Abstract

Tilapias are important aquaculture fishes that have been introduced widely all over the world, often carrying their monogenean parasites with them. An extensive investigation on monogeneans of invasive tilapias was conducted in 19 natural water sources in south China between July 2015 and December 2017. We found nine known species of monogeneans, i.e., Enterogyrus coronatus, E. malmbergi, Cichlidogyrus cirratus, C. halli, C. sclerosus, C. thurstonae, C. tilapiae, Scutogyrus longicornis, Gyrodactylus cichlidarum, and one unknown Gyrodactylus species. In addition to reporting ten new hosts and four new geographical records, we observed new morphological characteristics of these species. Observation on living specimens of Enterogyrus spp. demonstrated that these two species have characteristic opisthaptoral retraction capacities, while the opisthaptor glands were not observed in our specimens of E. coronatus and E. malmbergi. The morphological differences of the accessory piece of the male copulatory complex between C. cirratus and C. mbirizei (character for species differentiation) could result from the observation at different perspectives, which indicates that C. mbirizei is likely a synonym of C. cirratus. A more detailed structure of the sclerotized parts of Cichlidogyrus spp. and S. longicornis were revealed by scanning electron microscopy. As was the case for the monogeneans found on alien tilapias from other geographic regions, the present study confirmed the high potential of these monogeneans to establish populations in new habitats.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Map of investigation sites of tilapias in south China. AM natural preservation zone, Macau; BN Lancang River, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province; BS Boai River, Baise, Guangxi Province; CJ Shilu reservoir, Changjiang, Hainan Province; CM Jiatan reservoir, Chengmai, Hainan Province; CZ Han River, Chaozhou, Guangdong Province; DZ Songtao reservoir, Danzhou, Hainan Province; FZ Min River, Fuzhou, Fujian Province; GM Nongba reservoir, Lincang, Yunnan Province; GZ fish farm and pond in Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province; HK Nandu River, Haikou, Hainan Province; HL fish market, Hualien, Taiwan; HY Xinfengjiang reservoir, Heyuan, Guangdong Province; LZ Liu River, Liuzhou, Guangxi Province; MM Gaozhou reservoir, Maoming, Guangdong Province; NN Bachi River, Nanning, Guangxi Province; QN Lancang River, Lincang, Yunnan Province; QZ Jin River, Quanzhou, Fujian Province; SG Nanshui reservoir, Shaoguan, Guangdong Province; XM Xixi River, Xiamen, Fujian Province.
Figure 1
Figure 1
Map of investigation sites of tilapias in south China. AM natural preservation zone, Macau; BN Lancang River, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province; BS Boai River, Baise, Guangxi Province; CJ Shilu reservoir, Changjiang, Hainan Province; CM Jiatan reservoir, Chengmai, Hainan Province; CZ Han River, Chaozhou, Guangdong Province; DZ Songtao reservoir, Danzhou, Hainan Province; FZ Min River, Fuzhou, Fujian Province; GM Nongba reservoir, Lincang, Yunnan Province; GZ fish farm and pond in Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province; HK Nandu River, Haikou, Hainan Province; HL fish market, Hualien, Taiwan; HY Xinfengjiang reservoir, Heyuan, Guangdong Province; LZ Liu River, Liuzhou, Guangxi Province; MM Gaozhou reservoir, Maoming, Guangdong Province; NN Bachi River, Nanning, Guangxi Province; QN Lancang River, Lincang, Yunnan Province; QZ Jin River, Quanzhou, Fujian Province; SG Nanshui reservoir, Shaoguan, Guangdong Province; XM Xixi River, Xiamen, Fujian Province.
Figure 2
Figure 2
(A–B) Measurements studied. (A) Measurements used to study Cichlidogyrus spp. and Scutogyrus spp. DB dorsal bar: h, length of dorsal bar auricle; w, dorsal bar maximum width; x, dorsal bar total length; y, distance between auricles; z, dorsal bar base end length. A anchor: a, anchor total length; b, anchor blade length; c, anchor shaft length; d, anchor guard length; e, anchor point length. Vg vagina: x, vagina total length, w, vagina maximum width. MCC male copulatory complex: Ap, accessory piece straight length; St, stalk length; He, heel straight length; Pe, penis: x, penis total curved length; w, penis maximum width. Pl auxiliary plate: x, auxiliary plate total length; w, auxiliary plate maximum width. H hook straight length. VB ventral bar: w, ventral bar maximum width; x, length of one ventral bar branch. (B) Measurements used to study Enterogyrus spp. VB ventral bar: x, length of one ventral bar branch; w, ventral bar maximum width. A anchor: a, anchor total length; b, anchor blade length; c, anchor shaft length; d, anchor guard length; e, anchor point length. Pe penis: x, penis total curved length; w, penis base maximum width.
Figure 2
Figure 2
(A–B) Measurements studied. (A) Measurements used to study Cichlidogyrus spp. and Scutogyrus spp. DB dorsal bar: h, length of dorsal bar auricle; w, dorsal bar maximum width; x, dorsal bar total length; y, distance between auricles; z, dorsal bar base end length. A anchor: a, anchor total length; b, anchor blade length; c, anchor shaft length; d, anchor guard length; e, anchor point length. Vg vagina: x, vagina total length, w, vagina maximum width. MCC male copulatory complex: Ap, accessory piece straight length; St, stalk length; He, heel straight length; Pe, penis: x, penis total curved length; w, penis maximum width. Pl auxiliary plate: x, auxiliary plate total length; w, auxiliary plate maximum width. H hook straight length. VB ventral bar: w, ventral bar maximum width; x, length of one ventral bar branch. (B) Measurements used to study Enterogyrus spp. VB ventral bar: x, length of one ventral bar branch; w, ventral bar maximum width. A anchor: a, anchor total length; b, anchor blade length; c, anchor shaft length; d, anchor guard length; e, anchor point length. Pe penis: x, penis total curved length; w, penis base maximum width.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Drawings of sclerotized parts of E. coronatus Pariselle, Lambert & Euzet, 1991. DA, dorsal anchor; VA, ventral anchor; VB, ventral bar; Pe, penis; I–VII, hooks.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Drawings of sclerotized parts of E. coronatus Pariselle, Lambert & Euzet, 1991. DA, dorsal anchor; VA, ventral anchor; VB, ventral bar; Pe, penis; I–VII, hooks.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Different body shape of E. coronatus Pariselle, Lambert & Euzet, 1991 under coverslip and the motion of opisthaptoral sclerotized parts depicted in drawings. (a) Cup-shaped body (retracted); (b) interim body shape; (c) tongue-shaped body (relaxed).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Different body shape of E. coronatus Pariselle, Lambert & Euzet, 1991 under coverslip and the motion of opisthaptoral sclerotized parts depicted in drawings. (a) Cup-shaped body (retracted); (b) interim body shape; (c) tongue-shaped body (relaxed).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Drawings of sclerotized parts of E. malmbergi Bilong Bilong, 1988. DA, dorsal anchor; VA, ventral anchor; VB, ventral bar; Pe, penis; I–VII, hooks.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Drawings of sclerotized parts of E. malmbergi Bilong Bilong, 1988. DA, dorsal anchor; VA, ventral anchor; VB, ventral bar; Pe, penis; I–VII, hooks.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Different body shape of E. malmbergi Bilong Bilong, 1988 under coverslip and the motion of opisthaptoral sclerotized parts depicted in drawings. (a) Cup-shaped body (retracted); (b) interim body shape; (c) cup-shaped body (relaxed).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Different body shape of E. malmbergi Bilong Bilong, 1988 under coverslip and the motion of opisthaptoral sclerotized parts depicted in drawings. (a) Cup-shaped body (retracted); (b) interim body shape; (c) cup-shaped body (relaxed).
Figure 7
Figure 7
Opisthaptoral and genital sclerotized parts of Cichlidogyrus cirratus Paperna, 1964. Ap, accessory piece; DB, dorsal bar; DA, dorsal anchor; He, heel; Pe, penis; VA, ventral anchor; VB, ventral bar; Vg, vagina; I–VII, hooks.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Opisthaptoral and genital sclerotized parts of Cichlidogyrus cirratus Paperna, 1964. Ap, accessory piece; DB, dorsal bar; DA, dorsal anchor; He, heel; Pe, penis; VA, ventral anchor; VB, ventral bar; Vg, vagina; I–VII, hooks.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Morphology of the male copulatory complex of the same specimen of Cichlidogyrus cirratus observed in different angles. (a) undigested C. cirratus, (b) digested C. cirratus.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Morphology of the male copulatory complex of the same specimen of Cichlidogyrus cirratus observed in different angles. (a) undigested C. cirratus, (b) digested C. cirratus.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Scanning electron micrographs of genital sclerotized parts of species of Cichlidogyrus, Scutogyrus and Enterogyrus. (a) Male copulatory complex of C. cirratus; (b) penis end of male copulatory complex of C. cirratus; (c) male copulatory complex of C. sclerosus; (d) male copulatory complex of C. thurstonae; (e) male copulatory complex of S. longicornis; (f) penis basement of S. longicornis; (g) vagina of S. longicornis; (h) male copulatory complex of C. halli; (i) penis of E. malmbergi; (j) penis of E. coronatus.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Scanning electron micrographs of genital sclerotized parts of species of Cichlidogyrus, Scutogyrus and Enterogyrus. (a) Male copulatory complex of C. cirratus; (b) penis end of male copulatory complex of C. cirratus; (c) male copulatory complex of C. sclerosus; (d) male copulatory complex of C. thurstonae; (e) male copulatory complex of S. longicornis; (f) penis basement of S. longicornis; (g) vagina of S. longicornis; (h) male copulatory complex of C. halli; (i) penis of E. malmbergi; (j) penis of E. coronatus.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Opisthaptoral sclerotized parts of Gyrodactylus sp1. (a) Central hook complex; (b) ventral bar; (c) hook; (d) hook sickle; (e) dorsal bar.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Opisthaptoral sclerotized parts of Gyrodactylus sp1. (a) Central hook complex; (b) ventral bar; (c) hook; (d) hook sickle; (e) dorsal bar.

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