Background: This study analyzed the relationship between vancomycin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and acute kidney injury (AKI) reported across recent studies.
Methods: A systematic review of PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and compiled references was conducted. We included randomized cohort and case-control studies that reported vancomycin AUCs and risk of AKI (from 1990 to 2018). The primary outcome was AKI, defined as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥0.5 mg/L or a 50% increase from baseline on ≥2 consecutive measurements. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Primary analyses compared the impact of AUC cutpoint (greater than ~650 mg × hour/L) and AKI. Additional analysis compared AUC vs trough-guided monitoring on AKI incidence.
Results: Eight observational studies met inclusion/exclusion criteria with data for 2491 patients. Five studies reported first-24-hour AUCs (AUC0-24) and AKI, 2 studies reported 24- to 48-hour AUCs (AUC24-48) and AKI, and 2 studies reported AKI associated with AUC- vs trough-guided monitoring. AUC less than approximately 650 mg × hour/L was associated with decreased AKI for AUC0-24 (OR, 0.36 [95% CI, .23-.56]) as well as AUC24-48 (OR, 0.45 [95% CI, .27-.75]). AKI associated with the AUC monitoring strategy was significantly lower than trough-guided monitoring (OR, 0.68 [95% CI, .46-.99]).
Conclusions: AUCs measured in the first or second 24 hours and lower than approximately 650 mg × hour/L may result in a decreased risk of AKI. Vancomycin AUC monitoring strategy may result in less vancomycin-associated AKI. Additional investigations are warranted.
Keywords: AUC; nephrotoxicity; vancomycin.
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