Association of the Inactive Circulating Matrix Gla Protein with Vitamin K Intake, Calcification, Mortality, and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Feb 1;20(3):628. doi: 10.3390/ijms20030628.


Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), a small Gla vitamin K-dependent protein, is the most powerful natural occurring inhibitor of calcification in the human body. To become biologically active, MGP must undergo vitamin K-dependent carboxylation and phosphorylation. Vitamin K deficiency leads to the inactive uncarboxylated, dephosphorylated form of MGP (dpucMGP). We aimed to review the existing data on the association between circulating dpucMGP and vascular calcification, renal function, mortality, and cardiovascular disease in distinct populations. Moreover, the association between vitamin K supplementation and serum levels of dpucMGP was also reviewed.

Keywords: calcification; cardiovascular disease; dpucMGP; matrix Gla protein; mortality; renal function; vitamin K..

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biological Transport
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / genetics
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / metabolism*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / genetics
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / metabolism*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / mortality
  • Survival Analysis
  • Vascular Calcification / complications
  • Vascular Calcification / genetics
  • Vascular Calcification / metabolism*
  • Vascular Calcification / mortality
  • Vascular Stiffness
  • Vitamin K / metabolism*
  • Vitamin K Deficiency / complications
  • Vitamin K Deficiency / genetics
  • Vitamin K Deficiency / metabolism*
  • Vitamin K Deficiency / mortality


  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • matrix Gla protein
  • Vitamin K