Medical nutritional therapy is the first-line approach in managing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Diet is also a powerful modulator of the gut microbiota, whose impact on insulin resistance and the inflammatory response in the host are well known. Changes in the gut microbiota composition have been described in pregnancies either before the onset of GDM or after its diagnosis. The possible modulation of the gut microbiota by dietary interventions in pregnancy is a topic of emerging interest, in consideration of the potential effects on maternal and consequently neonatal health. To date, very few data from observational studies are available about the associations between diet and the gut microbiota in pregnancy complicated by GDM. In this review, we analyzed the available data and discussed the current knowledge about diet manipulation in order to shape the gut microbiota in pregnancy.
Keywords: diet; gestational diabetes mellitus; microbiota; pregnancy.