Human cytochrome P450 enzymes 5-51 as targets of drugs and natural and environmental compounds: mechanisms, induction, and inhibition - toxic effects and benefits

Drug Metab Rev. 2018 Aug;50(3):256-342. doi: 10.1080/03602532.2018.1483401.


Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes have long been of interest due to their roles in the metabolism of drugs, pesticides, pro-carcinogens, and other xenobiotic chemicals. They have also been of interest due to their very critical roles in the biosynthesis and metabolism of steroids, vitamins, and certain eicosanoids. This review covers the 22 (of the total of 57) human P450s in Families 5-51 and their substrate selectivity. Furthermore, included is information and references regarding inducibility, inhibition, and (in some cases) stimulation by chemicals. We update and discuss important aspects of each of these 22 P450s and questions that remain open.

Keywords: Cytochrome P450; eicosanoids; endogenous compounds; enzyme induction; enzyme inhibition; retinoids; steroids; vitamin A; vitamin D; xenobiotics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors / toxicity
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism*
  • Enzyme Induction / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Pesticides / pharmacology*
  • Pesticides / toxicity
  • Xenobiotics / pharmacology*
  • Xenobiotics / toxicity


  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Pesticides
  • Xenobiotics
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System