The Many Faces of Heart Failure

Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2019 Mar;11(1):11-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ccep.2018.11.001. Epub 2018 Dec 24.


Heart failure is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome stemming from cardiac overload and injury that leads to considerable morbidity and mortality. This review highlights the many faces of heart failure, a major and growing public health problem, including its causes, classification, underlying pathophysiology, and variable progression. An individualized, patient-centered treatment approach that focuses on guideline-directed pharmacologic and device therapies is required for optimal management of this complex syndrome.

Keywords: Cardiomyopathy; Heart disease; Heart failure; Systolic dysfunction.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiomyopathies
  • Heart Failure* / diagnosis
  • Heart Failure* / physiopathology
  • Heart Failure* / therapy
  • Heart Failure, Systolic
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Systole