Purpose: To examine the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation in children and adolescents.
Materials and methods: Retrospective review was performed of 59 patients (mean age 12.6 y [range, 1.5-20 y], mean weight 47.5 kg [range, 11.4-112.2 kg], mean Model for End-stage Liver Disease/Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease score 12.5 [range, 6-33]) who underwent 61 TIPS attempts at 3 tertiary children's hospitals from 2001 to 2017 for acute esophageal or gastroesophageal variceal bleeding, primary and secondary prevention of variceal bleeding, and refractory ascites. Pediatric liver disease etiologies included biliary atresia, cystic fibrosis, and ductal plate anomalies. Technical, hemodynamic, and clinical success and patency rates were reported at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months. Statistical analysis evaluated reasons for clinical failure. Kaplan-Meier analysis measured clinical success, patency, and transplant-free survival.
Results: Technical success was 93.4% (57/61) in 59 consecutive patients. Most common TIPS indications were treating and preventing esophageal and gastroesophageal variceal bleeding (57/59; 96.6%). Hemodynamic success was 94% (47/50). Clinical success was 80.7% (45/56). Two-year clinical success for acute variceal bleeding and ascites was 94.1% and 100%, respectively. Overall patency at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months was 98.0%, 97.8%, 94.3%, and 91.3%. Two-year transplant-free survival was 88.8%. Overall and major complication rates were 21.2% (13/61) and 8.2% (5/61), with 3 mortalities. Gradient reduction < 12 mm Hg correlated with clinical success (P < .01).
Conclusions: TIPS creation in pediatric patients is technically feasible and clinically efficacious for treatment and prevention of esophageal and gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage. High 2-year clinical success, patency, and survival rates should encourage providers to consider portosystemic shunts as a bridge to liver transplantation.
Copyright © 2018 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.