A taxonomic study of 24 Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacteria originating from the Antarctic environment is described. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing differentiated isolated strains into two groups belonging to the genus Flavobacterium. Group I (n=20) was closest to Flavobacterium aquidurense WB 1.1-56T (98.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) while group II (n=4) showed Flavobacterium hydatis DSM 2063T as its nearest neighbour (98.5-98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Despite high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, these two groups represented two distinct novel species as shown by phenotypic traits and low genomic relatedness assessed by rep-PCR fingerprinting, DNA-DNA hybridization and whole-genome sequencing. Common to representative strains of both groups were the presence of major menaquinone MK-6 and sym-homospermidine as the major polyamine. Common major fatty acids were C15:0 iso, C15:1 iso G, C15:0 iso 3-OH, C17:0 iso 3OH and Summed Feature 3 (C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c). Strain CCM 8828T (group I) contained phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified lipids lacking a functional group, three unidentified aminolipids and single unidentified glycolipid in the polar lipid profile. Strain CCM 8825T (group II) contained phosphatidylethanolamine, eight unidentified lipids lacking a functional group, three unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified glycolipids in the polar lipid profile. These characteristics corresponded to characteristics of the genus Flavobacterium. The obtained results showed that the analysed strains represent novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the names Flavobacterium circumlabens sp. nov. (type strain CCM 8828T=P5626T=LMG 30617T) and Flavobacterium cupreum sp. nov. (type strain CCM 8825T=P2683T=LMG 30614T) are proposed.
Keywords: ANI; Antarctica; Flavobacterium; Gliding; Phylogeny; Taxonomy.
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