Chromodomain helicase/ATPase DNA binding protein 1-like gene (CHD1L) is a recently identified gene associated with malignant tumor progression and patient chemotherapy resistance in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previously, we found an association between CHD1L overexpression and poor patient survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, little is known about the relationship between CHD1L expression and chemotherapy resistance of NSCLC. By employing immunohistochemistry, we analyzed the expression of CHD1L in NSCLC samples and elucidated the roles and mechanism of CHD1L in NSCLC chemoresistance. We found that the increased expression of CHD1L is positively correlated with a shorter survival time of patients who had received chemotherapy after surgery. We also found that the expression of CHD1L was increased after cisplatin treatment in A549 cells. Conversely, the depletion of CHD1L in cisplatin-resistance cells increased the cell sensitivity to cisplatin, indicating that CHD1L plays a critical role in cisplatin resistance of NSCLC cells. Importantly, we identified the ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member (ABCB1) gene as a potential downstream target of CHD1L in NSCLC cells. Knocking down ABCB1 coupled with ectopic expression of CHD1L enhanced the effect of cisplatin on NSCLC cells apoptosis. In addition, overexpressed CHD1L increase the transcription of c-Jun which targeted directly to the promoter of ABCB1. Our data demonstrate that CHD1L could induce cisplatin resistance in NSCLC via c-Jun-ABCB1-NF-κB axis, and may serve as a novel predictive marker and the potential therapeutic target for cisplatin resistance in NSCLC.