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, 9 (1), 1354

Oil-Spill Triggered Shift in Indigenous Microbial Structure and Functional Dynamics in Different Marine Environmental Matrices

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Oil-Spill Triggered Shift in Indigenous Microbial Structure and Functional Dynamics in Different Marine Environmental Matrices

C S Neethu et al. Sci Rep.

Abstract

Microbial degradation has long been recognized as the key rescue mechanism in shaping the oil polluted marine environments and the role of indigenous populations or their functional genomics have never been explored from Indian marine environments, post an oil spill event. In the current study, high throughput metagenomic analysis, PLFA profiling and mass spectrophotometric analysis was performed in combination with metabolomics to capture signature variations among the microbial communities in sediment, water and laboratory enrichments. Contrary to the previous reports, the bloom of Pseudomonadales (specifically genus Acinetobacter) in oiled sediment and Methylococcales in oiled water outnumbered the relative abundance of Alcanivorax in response to hydrocarbon contamination. Overall enhancement of xenobiotic degradation was suggested by metabolomic analysis in sediment and water post the spill event and varying quantitative assemblage of enzymes were found to be involved in hydrocarbon utilization. Laboratory enrichments revealed the competitive advantage of sediment communities over the water communities although unique taxa belonging to the later were also found to be enriched under in vitro conditions. Simultaneous analysis of sediment and water in the study provided explicit evidences on existence of differential microbial community dynamics, offering insight into possibilities of formulating nature identical solutions for hydrocarbon pollution.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Location map showing ship collision site and sampling sites based on remote sensing. The samples were collected at Royapuram (RP), Marina (MA), Light House (LH) and Thiruvanmiyur (TV). Enlarged view represents intense accumulation of spilled oil contained in boom (at RP) and spread of tarballs towards south of Chennai coast. Arc GIS (version 10.5.1, http://desktop.arcgis.com/en/arcmap/) was used for creating the map.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Utilization of various hydrocarbons (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons) by laboratory enrichments from various sites of oil pollution. LH, RP, MA and TV represents enrichments inoculated from oil contaminated sites at Light house, Royapuram, Marina and Thiruvanmiyur in the Chennai coast. Enriched samples from Royapuram and Light house showed maximum degradation in TPH and PAH.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Map of diversity observed from oiled and non-oiled samples. Bacterial diversity was dominated by class gamma proteobacteria and alpha proteobacteria. Inner circle represent the phylogenetic tree and mid rings correspond to heat map of various genera distributed in different samples H1 (enrichment), H2 (oiled sediment), H4 (oiled water), H5 (non-oiled water) and H6 (non-oiled sediment). Bar plot on outside of the circle indicate the species abundance in all samples and height of the bar corresponds to absolute OTU count.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Relative distribution of enzymes involved in various hydrocarbon degradation (PAH, naphthalene, xylene, benzoate and toluene) in seawater, sediment and the enrichment. Different colours in the Pie chart represent various enzymes represented as KEGG Orthologs.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Potential Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation pathway in the investigated communities of different environmental matrices derived from 16S rDNA based KEGG orthologs. Donut charts indicating the abundance of enzymes in each sample and bar plots indicating the relative abundance of enzymes between samples. The oil contaminated/non-oil contaminated samples, enrichment and the KOs are represented using different colours. The KEGG pathway map 00624 is adapted here from http://www.kegg.jp/kegg/kegg1.html. and enriched with data using VANTED (V2.2.1).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Potential naphthalene degradation pathway in the investigated communities of different environmental matrices derived from 16S rDNA based KEGG orthologs. Donut charts indicate the abundance of enzymes in each sample and bar plots indicate the relative abundance of enzymes between samples. The oil contaminated/non-oil contaminated samples, enrichment and the KOs are represented using different colours. The KEGG pathway map 00626 is adapted here from http://www.kegg.jp/kegg/kegg1.html. and enriched with data using VANTED (V2.2.1).

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