Readily available peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluents from PD patients in the course of renal replacement therapy are a potentially rich source for molecular markers for predicting clinical outcome, monitoring the therapy, and therapeutic interventions. The complex clinical phenotype of PD patients might be reflected in the PD effluent metabolome. Metabolomic analysis of PD effluent might allow quantitative detection and assessment of candidate PD biomarkers for prognostication and therapeutic monitoring. We therefore subjected peritoneal equilibration test effluents from 20 stable PD patients, obtained in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate cytoprotective effects of standard PD solution (3.86% glucose) supplemented with 8 mM alanyl-glutamine (AlaGln) to targeted metabolomics analysis. One hundred eighty eight pre-defined metabolites, including free amino acids, acylcarnitines, and glycerophospholipids, as well as custom metabolic indicators calculated from these metabolites were surveyed in a high-throughput assay requiring only 10 μl of PD effluent. Metabolite profiles of effluents from the cross-over trial were analyzed with respect to AlaGln status and clinical parameters such as duration of PD therapy and history of previous episodes of peritonitis. This targeted approach detected and quantified 184 small molecules in PD effluent, a larger number of detected metabolites than in all previous metabolomic studies in PD effluent combined. Metabolites were clustered within substance classes regarding concentrations after a 4-h dwell. PD effluent metabolic profiles were differentiated according to PD patient sub-populations, revealing novel changes in small molecule abundance during PD therapy. AlaGln supplementation of PD fluid altered levels of specific metabolites, including increases in alanine and glutamine but not glutamate, and reduced levels of small molecule indicators of oxidative stress, such as methionine sulfoxide. Our study represents the first application of targeted metabolomics to PD effluents. The observed metabolomic changes in PD effluent associated with AlaGln-supplementation during therapy suggested an anti-oxidant effect, and were consistent with the restoration of important stress and immune processes previously noted in the RCT. High-throughput detection of PD effluent metabolomic signatures and their alterations by therapeutic interventions offers new opportunities for metabolome-clinical correlation in PD and for prescription of personalized PD therapy.
Keywords: N(2)-L-alanyl-L-glutamine; chronic kidney disease; metabolome; methionine sulfoxide; oxidative stress.