Mycoplasma Infections

In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan.


Mycoplasma is a term used to refer to any of the members of the class Mollicutes which include Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma. With over 100 different species, the genus Mycoplasma is a unique bacterium that lacks a cell wall and causes a wide range of symptoms and infections. This organism, first discovered in 1898, was known initially as a parasitic infection to animals and has become most commonly known in modern medicine for the subspecies, Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Mycoplasma pneumoniae commonly causes "atypical pneumonia" a name derived because of its lack of response to antibiotics. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most widely studied Mycoplasma species due to its increasing prevalence. Despite its name, M. pneumoniae has also correlate with infections in other anatomical sites such as skin, central nervous system, blood, heart, and joints. Mycoplasma genitalium, another Mycoplasma species is raising increasing concern as a cause of sexually transmitted infections. Ureaplasma species has been identified as a cause of urologic, gynecologic and obstetric morbidity with associated complications in men, women, and neonates. This article discusses the most common mycoplasmal infections and its impact on modern practice.

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