Objective: Coenzyme Q10 is an antioxidant and an essential mitochondrial cofactor which has been suggested to improve the clinical features of migraine. Several randomized clinical trials have examined the effects of Coenzyme Q10 on migraine with inconclusive results. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of Coenzyme Q10 supplementation on the frequency, severity, and duration of migraine attacks. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane library and Scopus to identify eligible studies up to April 2018. Studies included were randomized clinical trials of Coenzyme Q10 supplementation that reported the frequency, severity, or duration of migraine attacks as a primary outcome. A meta-analysis of eligible studies was performed using the fixed effects model or the random effects model to estimate pooled effect size. Results: Four randomized clinical trials with 221 participants were included. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation significantly reduced the frequency of migraine attacks (weighted mean difference: -1.87 attacks/month, 95% CI: -2.69 to -1.05, p < 0.001) without significant heterogeneity among the studies (I 2 = 36.6%, p = 0.192). Coenzyme Q10 supplementation had no significant effect on severity (weighted mean difference: -2.35 visual analog scale score, 95% CI: -5.19 to 0.49, p = 0.105) and duration of migraine attacks (weighted mean difference: -6.14 h, 95% CI: -13.14 to 0.87, p = 0.086) with high heterogeneity. Conclusion: Pooled analyses of available randomized clinical trials suggest that Coenzyme Q10 supplementation may reduce the frequency of migraine attacks per month without affecting the severity or duration of migraine attacks.
Keywords: Coenzyme Q10; meta-analysis; migraine; systematic review.