Background: Detection of prostate cancer (PC) based on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing leads to many unnecessary prostate biopsies, overdiagnosis, and overtreatment of clinically insignificant tumors. Thus, novel and more accurate molecular biomarkers are required.
Methods: Using reverse transcription quantitative PCR, we measured the concentrations of 45 preselected microRNAs (miRNAs) in extracellular vesicle-enriched cell-free urine samples from 4 independent patient cohorts from Spain and Denmark, including 758 patients with clinically localized PC, 289 noncancer controls with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and 233 patients undergoing initial transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy owing to PC suspicion (101 with benign and 132 with malignant outcome). Diagnostic potential was assessed by ROC and decision curve analysis.
Results: We identified and successfully validated 8 upregulated and 21 downregulated miRNAs in urine from PC patients. Furthermore, we validated a previously identified 3-miRNA diagnostic ratio model, uCaP (miR-222-3p*miR-24-3p/miR-30c-5p). High uCaP scores were distinctive of PC in urine samples from BPH vs PC patients in 3 independent cohorts [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.84, 0.71, 0.72]. Additionally, uCaP predicted TRUS biopsy results with greater accuracy than PSA (AUC uCaP = 0.644; AUC PSA = 0.527) for patients within the diagnostic gray zone (PSA ≤ 10 ng/mL).
Conclusions: We successfully validated a urine-based diagnostic 3-miRNA signature for PC (uCaP) in 3 independent patient cohorts from 2 countries. In the future, the simple and noninvasive uCaP test may be used to help more accurately select patients for prostate biopsy. Prospective clinical validation is warranted.
© 2019 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.