Combining surveillance systems to investigate local trends in tuberculosis-HIV co-infection

AIDS Care. 2019 Oct;31(10):1311-1318. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2019.1576845. Epub 2019 Feb 7.


Alameda County has some of the highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) case rates of California counties. We identified TB-HIV co-infected patients in 2002-2015 by matching county TB and HIV registries, and assessed trends in TB-HIV case rates and estimated prevalence ratios for HIV co-infection. Of 2054 TB cases reported during 2002-2015, 91 (4%) were HIV co-infected. TB-HIV case rates were 0.29/100,000 and 0.40/100,000 in 2002 and 2015, respectively, with no significant change (P = 0.85). African-American TB case-patients were 9.77 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.90-16.17) more likely than Asians to be HIV co-infected, and men 2.74 times (95% CI 1.66-4.51) more likely co-infected than women. HIV co-infection was more likely among TB case-patients with homelessness (6.21, 95% CI 3.49-11.05) and injection drug use (11.75, 95% CI 7.61-18.14), but less common among foreign-born and older case-patients (both P < 0.05). Among foreign-born case-patients, 42% arrived in the U.S. within 5 years of TB diagnosis. TB-HIV case rates were low and stable in Alameda County, and co-infected patients were predominantly young, male, U.S.-born individuals with traditional TB risk factors. Efforts to reduce TB-HIV burden in Alameda County should target persons with traditional TB risk factors and recently arrived foreign-born individuals.

Keywords: AIDS-related opportunistic infections; California; HIV; Tuberculosis; public health surveillance.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • California / epidemiology
  • Coinfection / epidemiology*
  • Emigrants and Immigrants / statistics & numerical data
  • Ethnicity / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Ill-Housed Persons
  • Internationality
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Population Surveillance
  • Prevalence
  • Public Health Surveillance*
  • Registries
  • Substance Abuse, Intravenous / complications
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / epidemiology*