The Addition of Hip Arthroscopy to Periacetabular Osteotomy Does Not Increase Complication Rates: A Prospective Case Series

Am J Sports Med. 2019 Mar;47(3):543-551. doi: 10.1177/0363546518820528. Epub 2019 Feb 7.


Background: Previous studies on periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) reported complication and reoperation rates of 5.9% and 10%, respectively. Hip arthroscopy is increasingly utilized as an adjunct procedure to PAO to precisely treat associated intra-articular pathology. The addition of this procedure has the potential of further increasing complication rates.

Purpose: To determine the rates of complication and reoperation of combined hip arthroscopy and PAO for the treatment of acetabular deformities and associated intra-articular lesions.

Study design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: Using a prospective database, the authors retrospectively reviewed 248 hips (240 patients) that underwent combined hip arthroscopy and PAO between 2007 and 2016. Data were collected at scheduled follow-up visits at approximately 1 month, 3 to 4 months, and 1 and 2 years after surgery. Mean follow-up from surgery was 3 years (range, 1-8 years). A total of 220 PAOs were done for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia, 18 for symptomatic acetabular retroversion, and 10 for combined acetabular dysplasia and acetabular retroversion. Central compartment arthroscopy was performed for treatment of intra-articular chondrolabral pathology in all cases. Select cases underwent femoral head-neck junction osteochondroplasty either arthroscopically before the PAO or through an open approach after it. Complications were graded according to the modified Dindo-Clavien complication scheme, which was validated for hip preservation procedures. Reoperations (excluding hardware removal) were recorded.

Results: Grade III complications occurred among 7 patients (3%) while there were no grade IV complications. Grade III complications included deep infection (n = 3), wound dehiscence (n = 1), hematoma requiring exploration (n = 1), symptomatic heterotopic ossification requiring excision (n = 1), and deep venous thrombosis (n = 1). There were 13 reoperations (5%), and 3 were repeat hip arthroscopy. Univariate Cox hazard models were used to estimate the relative risk factors for complication and reoperation. Increased age (per decade) showed over twice the increased likelihood for complications (hazard ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.67-3.74). Also, preoperative diagnosis of acetabular retroversion, not acetabular dysplasia, showed >3 times the increased risk of reoperation (hazard ratio, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.41-6.61).

Conclusion: The rate of complications reported is comparable (3%) with previously published complication rates of PAO without hip arthroscopy. In this cohort, increasing age and diagnosis of acetabular retroversion were associated with higher complication and reoperation rates.

Keywords: Dindo-Clavien; complications; hip arthroscopy; periacetabular osteotomy; reoperations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetabulum / surgery*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Arthroscopy / adverse effects*
  • Arthroscopy / methods
  • Female
  • Femur Head / surgery
  • Femur Neck / surgery
  • Hip Dislocation / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Osteotomy / adverse effects*
  • Osteotomy / methods
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Reoperation
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult