Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) and immunoglobulin G4-related diseases (IgG4-RD) are regarded as entirely different disease types with different etiological mechanisms. However, we experienced two cases that had clinical features of both AAV and IgG4-RD. The first case is an 81-year-old woman who showed periaortitis and retroperitoneal fibrosis and periarteritis with elevation of myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody and IgG4 levels. The second case is a 63-year-old woman who had dura mater, ear, nose, lung, and kidney involvement with serum negative for ANCA and elevated IgG4. Renal biopsy revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis involving IgG4+ plasma cells (IgG4+/IgG+ cell ratio of ≥ 40%). On the other hand, lung biopsy showed features of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). These two cases suggested that AAV and IgG4-RD might overlap. To investigate the similarities and differences between AAV and IgG4-RD, we retrospectively analyzed 13 cases of typical GPA, a subtype of AAV, and 13 cases of typical IgG4-RD at our hospital for comparison of clinical features and found some differences that can be useful in the differential diagnosis between the two diseases. Although AAV and IgG4-RD are distinguishable based on characteristic findings in many cases, the diagnosis can be unclear in rare cases, in which clinicians should consider possible coexistence of AAV and IgG4-RD when performing further workup. Here, we discuss the similarities and differences between AAV and IgG4-RD on the basis of our results and past literature.
Keywords: ANCA-associated vasculitis; Granulomatosis with polyangiitis; IgG4-related disease; Retroperitoneal fibrosis; Similarity and difference.