SAM Composition and Electrode Roughness Affect Performance of a DNA Biosensor for Antibiotic Resistance

Biosensors (Basel). 2019 Feb 7;9(1):22. doi: 10.3390/bios9010022.


Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern in the treatment of infectious disease worldwide. Point-of-care (PoC) assays which rapidly identify antibiotic resistance in a sample will allow for immediate targeted therapy which improves patient outcomes and helps maintain the effectiveness of current antibiotic stockpiles. Electrochemical assays offer many benefits, but translation from a benchtop measurement system to low-cost portable electrodes can be challenging. Using electrochemical and physical techniques, this study examines how different electrode surfaces and bio-recognition elements, i.e. the self-assembled monolayer (SAM), affect the performance of a biosensor measuring the hybridisation of a probe for antibiotic resistance to a target gene sequence in solution. We evaluate several commercially available electrodes which could be suitable for PoC testing with different SAM layers and show that electrode selection also plays an important role in overall biosensor performance.

Keywords: DNA detection; electrochemical biosensor; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; point-of-care diagnostics; self-assembled monolayers (SAMs).

MeSH terms

  • Biosensing Techniques / methods*
  • DNA / analysis*
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial*
  • Electric Impedance
  • Electrodes
  • Gold / chemistry


  • Gold
  • DNA