Purpose: Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL) require radiation to the primary tumor site and sites of persistent metastatic disease. Proton radiation therapy (PRT) may promote organ sparing, but long-term outcomes have not been studied.
Methods and materials: Sequential patients with HR-NBL received PRT: 2160 cGy (relative biological effectiveness) to primary tumor bed and persistent metastatic sites, with 3600 cGy (relative biological effectiveness) to gross residual disease.
Results: From September 2010 through September 2015, 45 patients with HR-NBL received PRT after systemic therapy, primary tumor resection, and high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue. Median age was 46 months at the time of PRT (range, 10 months to 12 years); 23 patients (51%) were male. Primary tumors were adrenal in 40 (89%); 11 (24%) received boost. Ten metastatic sites in 8 patients were radiated. Double scattered proton beams were used for 19 (42%) patients, in combination with x-rays for 2 (5%). The remaining 26 (58%) received pencil beam scanning, available since January 2013. We observed 97% freedom from primary site recurrence at 3, 4, and 5 years. Overall survival rates were 89%, 80%, and 80% and disease-free survival rates were 77%, 70%, and 70%, at 3, 4, and 5 years, respectively. With median follow-up of 48.7 months from diagnosis (range, 11-90 months) for all patients (57.4 months for those alive), 37 (82%) patients are alive, and 32 (71%) are without evidence of disease. One patient experienced locoregional recurrence; the remaining 12 (27%) experienced relapse at distant, nonradiated sites. Acute toxicities during treatment were mainly grade 1. No patient has experienced World Health Organization grade 3 or 4 long-term renal or hepatic toxicity. Pencil beam scanning plans required less planning time and resources than double scattered plans.
Conclusions: We observe excellent outcomes in patients treated with PRT for HR-NBL from 2010 through 2015, with 82% of patients alive and 97% free of primary site recurrence. No patient has experienced long-term renal or liver toxicity. This treatment maximizes normal tissue preservation and is appropriate for this patient population.
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