Molecular Signature of CAID Syndrome: Noncanonical Roles of SGO1 in Regulation of TGF-β Signaling and Epigenomics

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;7(2):411-431. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2018.10.011. Epub 2018 Oct 24.


Background & aims: A generalized human pacemaking syndrome, chronic atrial and intestinal dysrhythmia (CAID) (OMIM 616201), is caused by a homozygous SGO1 mutation (K23E), leading to chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and arrhythmias. Because CAID patients do not show phenotypes consistent with perturbation of known roles of SGO1, we hypothesized that noncanonical roles of SGO1 drive the clinical manifestations observed.

Methods: To identify a molecular signature for CAID syndrome, we achieved unbiased screens in cell lines and gut tissues from CAID patients vs wild-type controls. We performed RNA sequencing along with stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture. In addition, we determined the genome-wide DNA methylation and chromatin accessibility signatures using reduced representative bisulfite sequencing and assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing. Functional studies included patch-clamp, quantitation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling, and immunohistochemistry in CAID patient gut biopsy specimens.

Results: Proteome and transcriptome studies converge on cell-cycle regulation, cardiac conduction, and smooth muscle regulation as drivers of CAID syndrome. Specifically, the inward rectifier current, an important regulator of cellular function, was disrupted. Immunohistochemistry confirmed overexpression of Budding Uninhibited By Benzimidazoles 1 (BUB1) in patients, implicating the TGF-β pathway in CAID pathogenesis. Canonical TGF-β signaling was up-regulated and uncoupled from noncanonical signaling in CAID patients. Reduced representative bisulfite sequencing and assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing experiments showed significant changes of chromatin states in CAID, pointing to epigenetic regulation as a possible pathologic mechanism.

Conclusions: Our findings point to impaired inward rectifier potassium current, dysregulation of canonical TGF-β signaling, and epigenetic regulation as potential drivers of intestinal and cardiac manifestations of CAID syndrome. Transcript profiling and genomics data are as follows: repository URL:; SuperSeries GSE110612 was composed of the following subseries: GSE110309, GSE110576, and GSE110601.

Keywords: CAID Syndrome (Chronic Atrial and Intestinal Dysrhythmia); Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction; Epigenetics; TGF-β Signaling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics*
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / pathology
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / physiopathology
  • Adult
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism*
  • DNA Methylation / genetics
  • Dermis / pathology
  • Epigenomics*
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Ontology
  • Humans
  • Potassium Channels / metabolism
  • Proteome / metabolism
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Syndrome
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Potassium Channels
  • Proteome
  • SGO1 protein, human
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta

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