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, 31 (2), 102-116
eCollection

Eocene Sand Tiger Sharks (Lamniformes, Odontaspididae) From the Bolca Konservat-Lagerstätte, Italy: Palaeobiology, Palaeobiogeography and Evolutionary Significance

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Eocene Sand Tiger Sharks (Lamniformes, Odontaspididae) From the Bolca Konservat-Lagerstätte, Italy: Palaeobiology, Palaeobiogeography and Evolutionary Significance

Giuseppe Marramà et al. Hist Biol.

Abstract

Here we report the first record of one of the most common and widespread Palaeogene selachians, the sand tiger shark Brachycarcharias, from the Ypresian Bolca Konservat-Lagerstätte. The combination of dental character of the 15 isolated teeth collected from the Pesciara and Monte Postale sites (e.g. anterior teeth up to 25 mm with fairly low triangular cusp decreasing regularly in width; one to two pairs of well-developed lateral cusplets; root with broadly separated lobes; upper teeth with a cusp bent distally) supports their assignment to the odontaspidid Brachycarcharias lerichei (Casier, 1946), a species widely spread across the North Hemisphere during the early Palaeogene. The unambiguous first report of this lamniform shark in the Eocene Bolca Konservat-Lagerstätte improves our knowledge concerning the diversity and palaeobiology of the cartilaginous fishes of this palaeontological site, and provides new insights about the biotic turnovers that involved the high trophic levels of the marine settings after the end-Cretaceous extinction.

Keywords: Brachycarcharias Cappetta and Nolf, 2005; Chondrichthyes; Elasmobranchii; Konservat-Lagerstätte; Ypresian; biotic turnovers.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Location and geological map of the Bolca area showing the sites of Ypresian age where Brachycarcharias lerichei (Casier, 1946) teeth have been found.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Brachycarcharias lerichei (Casier, 1946) from the Eocene Bolca Lagerstätte, Italy. (A–E) anterior teeth: (A) MCSNV IG.VR.69800, labial view, Monte Postale site; (B) MCSNV IG.VR.24423, labial view, Pesciara site; (C) MGP-PD 7358, lingual view, Monte Postale site, figured in Bassani (1897, pl. 9, fig. 12); (D) NHMUK PV.OR.43450, labial view, Pesciara site; copyright: The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London; (E) MCSNV IG.VR.69757, profile view, Monte Postale site. (F–H) lower antero-lateral teeth: (F) MCSNV IG.VR.66977, labial view, Monte Postale site; (G1–G2) MCSNV IG.135777/8, specimen in part and counterpart, Pesciara site; (H) MCSNV IG.135779, lingual view, Pesciara site. Scale bars 2 mm.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Brachycarcharias lerichei (Casier, 1946) from the Eocene Bolca Lagerstätte, Italy. (A–E) anterior teeth: (A) MCSNV IG.VR.69800, labial view, Monte Postale site; (B) MCSNV IG.VR.24423, labial view, Pesciara site; (C) MGP-PD 7358, lingual view, Monte Postale site, figured in Bassani (1897, pl. 9, fig. 12); (D) NHMUK PV.OR.43450, labial view, Pesciara site; copyright: The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London; (E) MCSNV IG.VR.69757, profile view, Monte Postale site. (F–H) lower antero-lateral teeth: (F) MCSNV IG.VR.66977, labial view, Monte Postale site; (G1–G2) MCSNV IG.135777/8, specimen in part and counterpart, Pesciara site; (H) MCSNV IG.135779, lingual view, Pesciara site. Scale bars 2 mm.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Upper teeth of Brachycarcharias lerichei (Casier, 1946) from the Eocene Bolca Lagerstätte, Italy. (A–C) antero-lateral teeth: (A1) labial and (A2) lingual view of MGP-PD 7366, Monte Postale site, figured in Bassani (1897, pl. 9, Fig. 11); (B) MC 89, labial view, Monte Postale site; (C) MCSNV IG.VR.24339, labial view, Monte Postale site; (D–G) lateral teeth: (D) MCSNV IG.VR.69484, lingual view, Monte Postale site; (E) MCSNV IG.23598, labial view, Pesciara site; (F) MCSNV T.176, labial view, Pesciara site; MCSNV IG.43355, lingual view, Pesciara site. Scale bars 2 mm.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Upper teeth of Brachycarcharias lerichei (Casier, 1946) from the Eocene Bolca Lagerstätte, Italy. (A–C) antero-lateral teeth: (A1) labial and (A2) lingual view of MGP-PD 7366, Monte Postale site, figured in Bassani (1897, pl. 9, Fig. 11); (B) MC 89, labial view, Monte Postale site; (C) MCSNV IG.VR.24339, labial view, Monte Postale site; (D–G) lateral teeth: (D) MCSNV IG.VR.69484, lingual view, Monte Postale site; (E) MCSNV IG.23598, labial view, Pesciara site; (F) MCSNV T.176, labial view, Pesciara site; MCSNV IG.43355, lingual view, Pesciara site. Scale bars 2 mm.
Figure 4.
Figure 4.
Visual image of the PCA performed on the entire data-set of standardised and log-transformed measurements, showing the separation of the teeth of Brachycarcharias lerichei (Casier, 1946) from the Eocene Bolca Lagerstätte based on their position on jaws. Note that the specimen MCSNV IG.VR.69757 is not present in the plot because of the lack of several measurements useful to define its position.
Figure 4.
Figure 4.
Visual image of the PCA performed on the entire data-set of standardised and log-transformed measurements, showing the separation of the teeth of Brachycarcharias lerichei (Casier, 1946) from the Eocene Bolca Lagerstätte based on their position on jaws. Note that the specimen MCSNV IG.VR.69757 is not present in the plot because of the lack of several measurements useful to define its position.
Figure 5.
Figure 5.
Hypothetical outlines of individuals of Brachycarcharias lerichei (Casier, 1946) from the Eocene Bolca Lagerstätte, showing the range of maximum and minimum body size estimation with a human for scale.
Figure 6.
Figure 6.
Schematic simplified map showing the palaeobiogeographic distribution of Brachycarcharias Cappetta and Nolf, 2005. Localities: 1 Mexico, 2 Mississippi, 3 Maryland, 4 France, 5 Morocco, 6 New Zealand, 7 Tunisia, 8 South Carolina, 9 Virginia, 10 Georgia, 11 Italy, 12 England, 13 Belgium, 14 Austria, 15 Algeria, 16 Congo, 17 Angola, 18 Alabama, 19 Egypt, 20 Germany, 21 Nigeria, 22 Togo, 23 Uzbekistan, 24 Spain, 25 North Carolina, 26 Senegal, 27 Texas, 28 Louisiana, 29 Japan. See Supplementary material for the references. Modified from Scotese (2002).
Figure 6.
Figure 6.
Schematic simplified map showing the palaeobiogeographic distribution of Brachycarcharias Cappetta and Nolf, 2005. Localities: 1 Mexico, 2 Mississippi, 3 Maryland, 4 France, 5 Morocco, 6 New Zealand, 7 Tunisia, 8 South Carolina, 9 Virginia, 10 Georgia, 11 Italy, 12 England, 13 Belgium, 14 Austria, 15 Algeria, 16 Congo, 17 Angola, 18 Alabama, 19 Egypt, 20 Germany, 21 Nigeria, 22 Togo, 23 Uzbekistan, 24 Spain, 25 North Carolina, 26 Senegal, 27 Texas, 28 Louisiana, 29 Japan. See Supplementary material for the references. Modified from Scotese (2002).
Figure 7.
Figure 7.
Frequency-histogram showing the distribution of the occurrences of the different species of Brachycarcharias Cappetta and Nolf, 2005 during the Palaeocene and Eocene.
Figure 7.
Figure 7.
Frequency-histogram showing the distribution of the occurrences of the different species of Brachycarcharias Cappetta and Nolf, 2005 during the Palaeocene and Eocene.

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