Human kidney tissue can now be generated via the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. This advance is anticipated to facilitate the modeling of human kidney diseases, provide platforms for nephrotoxicity screening, enable cellular therapy, and potentially generate tissue for renal replacement. All such applications will rely upon the accuracy and reliability of the model and the capacity for stem cell-derived kidney tissue to recapitulate both normal and diseased states. In this review, we discuss the models available, how well they recapitulate the human kidney, and how far we are from application of these cells for use in cellular therapies.
Keywords: disease modeling; human development; kidney disease; kidney organoid; pluripotent stem cell.