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, 9 (1), 1942

Evaluation of Novel Nanoscaled Metal Fluorides on Their Ability to Remineralize Enamel Caries Lesions

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Evaluation of Novel Nanoscaled Metal Fluorides on Their Ability to Remineralize Enamel Caries Lesions

Matthias Zirk et al. Sci Rep.

Abstract

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the ability of two nanoscaled metal fluorides (NMF) to remineralize shallow (SL) and deep (DL) artificial enamel caries lesions. NMF are synthesized via a non-aqueous fluorolytic sol-gel-synthesis and dissolve low fluoride concentration in aqueous solutions (n-CaF2: 7 ppm, n-MgF2: 70 ppm), whilst containing a nominal fluoride concentration of 3,400 ppm. For comparison, an aqueous sodium fluoride solution (NaF: 3,400 ppm), a sodium fluoride containing varnish (Duraphat: 22,600 ppm) and a fluoride-free negative control were investigated. Bovine enamel specimens with SL (n = 86, 4649-4795 vol%xμm) or DL (n = 145, 9091-9304 vol%xμm) were prepared and allocated to five groups each. In each group the respective agent was applied and pH-cycling was performed for 14 days (SL) and 90 days (DL), respectively. Mineral loss and lesion depth were assessed by transversal microradiography. For SL, all fluoride agents significantly remineralized the specimens compared to baseline (p > 0.05; Mann-Whitney test) to a similar extent. For DL, both NMF showed significantly higher mineral gain compared to the other fluoride agents (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the novel NMF- showing relatively low free fluoride concentrations- bear at least the similar potential for remineralization of early caries lesions as highly fluoridated agents being commonly used.

Conflict of interest statement

E.K. holds the patent for the applied nanoscaled metal fluorides. All other authors herewith declare that there are no relationships that might lead to a conflict of interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Mineral loss of shallow (SL) and deep (DL) artificial enamel caries lesions (ΔΔZ; box and thick lines = 25th and 75th percentiles and median, error bars = minima and maxima) after treatment with nanoscaled metal fluorides (n-CaF2: 7 ppm, n-MgF2: 70 ppm), an aqueous sodium fluoride solution (NaF: 3,400 ppm), a sodium fluoride containing varnish (Duraphat: 22,600 ppm) and a fluoride-free negative control (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney test, Bonferroni adjusted); circles = outliners. Different upper-case letters indicate statistically significant difference between DL and lower-case letters between SL groups. Different upper-case letters indicate statistically significant difference between DL and lower-case letters between SL groups.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Lesion depth of shallow (SL) and deep (DL) artificial enamel caries lesions (ΔLD; box and thick lines = 25th and 75th percentiles and median, error bars = minima and maxima) after treatment and pH-cycling with nanoscaled metal fluorides (n-CaF2: 7 ppm, n-MgF2: 70 ppm) compared with an aqueous sodium fluoride solution (NaF: 3,400 ppm), a sodium fluoride containing varnish (Duraphat: 22.600 ppm) and a fluoride-free negative control were investigated (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney test, Bonferroni adjusted); circles = outliners. Different upper-case letters indicate statistically significant difference between DL and lower-case letters between SL groups. Different upper-case letters indicate statistically significant difference between DL and lower-case letters between SL groups.

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