Background: Reproductive age may be a risk factor for vascular disease. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is produced by viable ovarian follicles and reflects reproductive age. We examined whether AMH concentrations were associated with markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney disease among women with type 1 diabetes.
Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study. Participants included women with type 1 diabetes and ≥1 AMH measurement (n = 390). In multivariable regression models which adjusted for repeated measures, we examined the associations between AMH with CVD risk factors, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and albumin excretion ratio. We also examined whether initial AMH concentrations were associated with the presence of any coronary artery calcification (CAC) or carotid intima media thickness (cIMT).
Results: After adjustment for age, AMH was not associated with waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profiles, or renal function. Higher initial AMH concentrations had borderline but non-significant associations with the presence of CAC after adjustment for age (odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 1.16) which were minimally altered by addition of other CVD risk factors, although women in the 3rd quartile of AMH had lower odds of CAC than women in the lowest quartile (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.17, 0.94). After adjustment for age, higher AMH was associated with statistically significant but only slightly higher cIMT (0.005 mm, p = 0.0087) which was minimally altered by addition of other CVD risk factors.
Conclusions: Among midlife women with type 1 diabetes, AMH has slight but significant associations with subclinical measures of atherosclerosis. Future studies should examine whether these associations are clinically significant.
Keywords: Anti-Müllerian hormone; Coronary artery calcification; Ovarian reserve; Type 1 diabetes.