IL-17 family cytokines are critical to host defense responses at cutaneous and mucosal surfaces. Whereas IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17C induce overlapping inflammatory cascades to promote neutrophil-mediated immunity, IL-17E/IL-25 drives type 2 immune pathways and eosinophil activity. Genetic and pharmacological studies reveal the significant contribution these cytokines play in antimicrobial and autoimmune mechanisms. However, little is known about the related family member, IL-17B, with contrasting reports of both pro- and anti-inflammatory function in rodents. We demonstrate that in the human immune system, IL-17B is functionally similar to IL-25 and elicits type 2 cytokine secretion from innate type 2 lymphocytes, NKT, and CD4+ CRTH2+ Th2 cells. Like IL-25, this activity is dependent on the IL-17RA and IL-17RB receptor subunits. Furthermore, IL-17B can augment IL-33-driven type 2 responses. These data position IL-17B as a novel component in the regulation of human type 2 immunity.
Copyright © 2019 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.