A maximum clade credibility tree constructed using the full-length spike (S) and hemagglutinin-esterase genes revealed that Vietnamese Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) strains belong to a single cluster (C1); therefore, they might share a common origin with Cuban and Chinese BCoV strains. The omega values of cluster 1 (C1) and cluster 2 (C2) were 0.15734 and 0.11613, respectively, and naive empirical bayes analysis identified two amino acid positions (179 and 501) in the S protein in C1 and three amino acid positions (113, 501, and 525) in that of C2 that underwent positive selection (p > 99%). The evolutionary rate of C1 was estimated to be 7.6206 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year, and the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of Vietnamese BCoVs was estimated to date back to 1962 (95% HPD 1950-1973). The effective population sizes of C1 and C2 underwent a rapid reduction after 2000 and 2004, respectively.
Keywords: Bovine coronavirus; Evolutionary rate; Positive selection; tMRCA.