Background: N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation has been associated with reduced mortality and inflammation in patients with cardiovascular disease. There are limited data on the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD).
Materials and methods: The OMEGA-PAD II trial was a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to assess the effect of 3 mo of high-dose oral n-3 PUFA supplementation on inflammation, endothelial function, and walking ability in patients with PAD.
Results: Twenty-four patients with claudication received 4.4 g/d of fish oil or placebo for 3 mo. Outcomes measured included high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, the omega-3 index, endothelial function as measured via flow-mediated vasodilation, walking impairment questionnaire, and a 6-min walk test. Plasma levels of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) were measured by liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In patients treated with fish oil, the absolute mean omega-3 index significantly increased from baseline (fish oil: 7.2 ± 1.2%, P < 0.001; placebo: -0.4 ± 0.9%, P = 0.31; between-group P < 0.001). Furthermore, there were significant increases in several pathway markers of SPM biosynthesis, including several mono-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids and mono-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids. We also observed significant increases in the SPM lipoxin A5 (fish oil: 0.57 ± 0.70 pg/mL, P = 0.05; placebo: 0.01 ± 0.38 pg/mL, P = 0.93; between-group P = 0.04) and resolvin E3 (fish oil: 154 ± 171 pg/mL, P = 0.04; placebo: 32 ± 54 pg/mL, P = 0.08; between-group P = 0.04). There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, flow-mediated vasodilation, walking impairment questionnaire, or 6-min walk test in the fish oil group.
Conclusions: Fish oil increases SPMs in plasma of patients with PAD. Further studies are required to determine whether these early changes translate to clinical improvements in patients with PAD.
Keywords: Fish oils; Other pharmacotherapy; Peripheral artery disease; Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
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