Background: Mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) is the main route of HIV-1 infection in children. Genetic studies suggest HLA-B alleles play an important role on HIV-1 transmission, progression, and control of HIV-1 infection.
Objective: To evaluate which polymorphisms of HLA-B are involved in HIV-1 MTCT.
Methods: Two independent reviewers performed a systematic review on search engines PubMed, Europe PMC, Cochrane, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and Literatura Latino-americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs), using the following key terms: "HIV infection", "HIV newborn", "HLA polymorphisms", "HLA-B", and "Mother to child transmission". All studies focusing on evaluation of HIV-1 MTCT, HIV infection evolution, and molecular analyses of HLA-B in children were selected.
Results: Nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Sixteen HLA-B alleles groups were associated with HIV-1 infection; seven of them (43.8%) were related to slow disease progression or reduced risk of MTCT, while six (37.5%) alleles groups were linked to a faster progression of HIV infection in children and to increased risk of MTCT. The available evidence suggest that HLA-B*57 group allele is associated with slow disease progression, while HLA-B*35 group allele is associated to increased risk of MTCT and rapid disease progression in infected children. The role of HLA-B*18, B*58 and B*44 are still controversial because they were associated to both, protection against MTCT, and to higher HIV replicative capacity, in different studies.
Conclusion: HLA-B*57 group allele can be protective against MTCT while HLA-B*35 groups alleles are consistently associated with HIV-1 MTCT.
Keywords: “HIV”; “HLA-B”; “Mother to child transmission”.
Copyright © 2019 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.