Risk factors and self-perception for facial aging among Nepalese population

J Cosmet Dermatol. 2019 Dec;18(6):1794-1799. doi: 10.1111/jocd.12885. Epub 2019 Feb 17.


Background: Facial appearance has increasing importance to individuals and women, in particular. Till date, there are no reports of the extrinsic factors influencing skin aging in Nepalese population.

Objectives: To assess the risk factors and self-perception for facial aging in Nepalese population.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 attendees aged 30-70 years visiting the dermatology outpatient department of B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. An interview of the attendees was conducted to establish their perceived risk factors and age knowledge based on a questionnaire. The facial wrinkling was estimated by facial wrinkle scores using standardized visual assessment method by a dermatologist who was blinded with regard to all risk factors and age of the subjects.

Results: Around 50% of attendees were conscious about facial health, 53% perceived their facial age as their chronological age, 39% used some facial care products, and 68% were aware of the risk factors for facial aging. The major perceived risk factors were unhealthy eating habits, stress, less exercise, dehydration, diseased state and sleeping habits. A significant association was found between increasing age, place of birth in hills or mountains and sun exposure with high wrinkling score.

Conclusion: Facial skin wrinkles can be considered as a marker for intrinsic aging. Though the main factor responsible for extrinsic aging is ultraviolet radiation, identification of the factors may help in motivating the individuals for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviors for facial age in Nepalese population that may provide important public health benefits.

Keywords: facial aging; facial wrinkles; risk factor; self-perception.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aging / psychology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Face
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nepal
  • Risk Factors
  • Self Concept*
  • Skin Aging / radiation effects*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / statistics & numerical data
  • Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects*