Expanding the genetic and clinical spectrum of the NONO-associated X-linked intellectual disability syndrome

Am J Med Genet A. 2019 May;179(5):792-796. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61091. Epub 2019 Feb 17.


The NONO gene encodes a nuclear protein involved in RNA metabolism. Hemizygous loss-of-function NONO variants have been associated with syndromic intellectual disability and with left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC). A two-year-old boy presented to the University of Utah's Penelope Undiagnosed Disease Program with developmental delay, nonfamilial features, relative macrocephaly, and dilated cardiomyopathy with LVNC and Ebstein anomaly. Brain MRI showed a thick corpus callosum, mild Chiari I malformation, and a flattened pituitary. Exome sequencing identified a novel intronic deletion (c.154+5_154+6delGT) in the NONO gene. Splicing studies demonstrated intron 4 read-through and the use of an alternative donor causing the frameshift p.Asn52Serfs*6. Family segregation analysis showed that the variant occurred de novo in the boy's unaffected mother. MRI and endocrine findings suggest that hypopituitarism may contribute to growth failure, abnormal thyroid hormone levels, cryptorchidism, or delayed puberty in patients with NONO-associated disease. Also, including this case LVNC has been observed in five out of eight patients, and this report also confirms an association between loss of NONO and Ebstein anomaly. In some cases, unrelated individuals share the same pathogenic NONO variants but do not all have clinically significant LVNC, suggesting that additional modifiers may contribute to cardiac phenotypes.

Keywords: NONO; Ebstein anomaly; left ventricular noncompaction; splicing variant; syndromic intellectual disability.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • Exome
  • Facies
  • Female
  • Genes, X-Linked*
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Genetic Loci
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability / diagnosis*
  • Intellectual Disability / genetics*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Mutation*
  • Phenotype*
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • Syndrome


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • NONO protein, human
  • RNA-Binding Proteins