Introduction: The high burden of left ventricular (LV) abnormalities in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well established. However, less is known about the prevalence, patterns, and determinants of LV abnormalities in patients with early CKD.
Methods: We examined LV structure in 290 patients with a median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 51 ml/min per 1.73 m2 by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We explored associations with clinical and hemodynamic parameters, hydration (bioimpedance), endothelial function, inflammation (including C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α and its soluble receptors) and mineral bone disease (MBD) markers (including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, α-klotho and fibroblast growth factor-23).
Results: Normal geometry was found in 56% of patients, dilation in 4%, concentric remodeling in 10%, and LV hypertrophy in 29%. Linear regression analysis revealed that greater LV mass was independently associated with male sex, greater body mass index (BMI), and higher 24-hour systolic blood pressure (24-hour SBP). Concentric remodeling was independently associated with age, male sex, higher 24-hour SBP, and greater hemoglobin levels. Surprisingly, neither hydration status, nor endothelial function, nor any of the inflammatory or MBD parameters added significantly to these models.
Conclusion: Abnormal LV structure was found in almost one-half of the patients. Reducing BMI and 24-hour SBP and avoiding high hemoglobin concentrations appear to be the key factors to prevent abnormal LV remodeling in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD.
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; hypertension; kidney diseases; left ventricular hypertrophy; mineral metabolism.