Background: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is an uncommon condition characterized by diffuse mucinous material in the abdomen and pelvis, generally arising from a perforated epithelial neoplasm. Typically, the disease presents as suspected acute appendicitis, ovarian mass, abdominal distension, or ventral hernia. Our case represents a very rare presentation of superinfected PMP.
Case presentation: A 46-year-old female with a past medical history notable for depression, asthma, and uterine leiomyomas presented to an urgent care with 5 days of progressive abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and subjective fevers. The patient had a diffusely tender abdomen, without peritonitis, was mildly tachycardic, and had a white blood cell count of 15 K. A CT of the abdomen/pelvis was consistent with PMP with a ruptured appendiceal mucocele versus PMP secondary to an adnexal ovarian neoplastic pathology with an infectious component. The patient initially improved on antibiotics but ultimately required two surgeries, the first of which controlled intraabdominal sepsis while the second permitted definitive management of PMP with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC.
Conclusion: Superinfected PMP is a rare entity with very few documented cases. A staged approach that incorporates clearing the peritoneal infection, with or without resection of the primary tumor, followed by rehabilitation and definitive surgery appears to be a safe and effective management strategy.
Keywords: Appendix; Infected; LAMN; PMP; Pseudomyxoma peritonei; Sepsis.