It is increasingly acknowledged that land-use and land-cover change has become a key subject that urgently needs to be addressed in the study of global environmental change. In the present study, supported by the long-time-series of land-use and land-cover data from 1990, 2000, and 2017, we used the land-use transition matrix, Markov chain model and Moran's I to derive detailed information of the spatial patterns and temporal variation of the land-use and land-cover change; additionally, we highlight the deforestation/afforestation conversion process during the period of 1990-2017. The results show that a total of 4708 km2 (i.e., 2.0% of the total area) changed in Guangxi from 1990 to 2017, while 418 km2 of woodland has been lost in this region. The woodland lost (deforestation) and woodland gained (afforestation) were collocated with intensive forest practices in the past 27 years. The conversions from woodland to cropland and from woodland to grassland were the dominant processes of deforestation and afforestation, respectively. Steep slope cropland was one of the major conversion patterns of afforestation after 2000. This result is mainly explained by the implementation of the "Grain for Green Program" policy and the large-scale development of eucalyptus plantations. Further efforts should be made to control deforestation in this area. These findings can also be used as a reference in the formulation and implementation of sustainable woodland management policies.